Highlights of the citizens perception survey
Highlights of the citizens’ perception survey on local government public financial management and urban services
The LGCSP undertook a citizens’ perception survey on local government public financial management and urban services as a baseline data on citizens’ engagement with urban assemblies and their perception of urban management and service delivery.
The survey gauged perceptions of citizens’ of local government public financial management processes and as well as their interactions with key MMA staff to access information. It also assessed citizens’ experiences with key urban services delivery such as health, education, water, sanitation and road.
The objective of the survey was to assess citizen’s understanding of key local government public financial processes as well as their participation in decision making processes of the local government authority. The survey also gauged citizen’s perception of key urban services such as water, health, education, sanitation and roads.
Citizens’ Perception of MMAs Responsiveness
- There was widespread dissatisfaction among citizens with the way MMA officials respond to citizen’s enquiries on services. 49 percent indicated levels of dissatisfaction with the way MMAs respond to their enquiries or request for services at the offices of the MMAs. Only 22 percent of respondents indicated some levels of satisfaction with the responsiveness of MMAs to their enquiries on a range of services.
- There was a low knowledge among citizens of key officials of the MMAs. Only 17 percent of the respondents living in MMAs knew both the DCE and the Assembly member. 47 percent knew the assembly member and only 3 percent knew the MCE.
- Citizens of MMAs do not usually visit the local government offices in the municipality. A large majority of respondents (89 percent) had not made a visit to the MMA offices in the last 12 months preceding the survey in June 2013.
- A large majority of citizens were either not aware of, or were not satisfied with the level of professionalism of MMA staff. Only 19 percent of respondents indicated levels of satisfaction with the level of professionalism with MMAs.
- Only about a third of all respondents were of the opinion that they would be listened to by the MMA. Only 34 percent of respondents with no education said they would be listened to, while 46 percent of respondents with basic education and 46 percent of respondents with secondary or higher level of education think so.
Citizens’ Understanding of Public Financial Management Process
- Majority of citizens have participated actively in a meeting of the MMA. Over 62 percent of all respondents to the survey have ever attended a planning meeting of the assembly, and in most cases got the opportunity to ask questions. However, about 38 percent of respondents said they have never participated in development planning meetings of the MMA.
- Overall, majority of citizens of MMAs do not have the opportunity to participate in the budget process of the assembly and have very little information about the budget of the assembly. Over 99 percent of all respondents have no idea of the expected revenue in the Municipal Budget.
- Nearly a third of citizens in MMAs have no idea about the priorities of the MMA in the budget. When asked, 32 percent, said they don’t know, 17 percent said education, 15 percent roads, 11 percent mentioned sanitation and another 8 percent said wages and salaries.
- Only a little over a third of all citizens in MMAs (37 percent) are aware of their right to participate in the budget process of the MMA. 63 percent said they didn’t know they could participate in budget deliberations of the assembly.
- An overwhelming majority of citizens were of the opinion that it is very important to see the budget of the MMA. Over 80 percent of all respondents said it was important to see the budget, this includes 53 percent of respondents to the survey who said it was very important for them to see the budget of the MMA, and another 27 percent who acknowledged that seeing the MMAs budget is important.
- Only 2 percent of respondents have ever participated in MMAs budget meeting. An overwhelming majority of respondents (98 percent) never had any information about how MMA receives and uses its money.
- Two in every three households in MMAs could not tell whether or not they were satisfied with measures in place to increase revenues and control expenditure because they lack information.
- Majority of citizens in MMAs have never received any information on the financial statements and audits of the assembly. 98 percent of respondents have neither seen nor heard any financial report from the MMAs.
- Citizens trust information in MMA financial statements. Only 25 percent of respondents who had seen or heard about the financial statement of the MMAs were of the opinion that the statements were not accurate.
- Major source of information for citizens on the MMA budget is radio and TV, accounting for 55 percent of major source of news. In the Ashanti and Brong Ahafo Regions, nearly all respondents got information on financial statements.
Citizens Perception of Urban Services
Citizens Perception of Public Education
- Citizens generally were of the opinion that there is high proliferation of schools in MMAs. More than 90 of all respondents have both private and state owned primary and JHS in their communities. Only 2 percent of respondents indicated they have only primary education provided by the private sector and another 2 percent said they have only private Junior High school.
- In spite of the guarantees under the FCUBE laws that all children of school going age (6-15 years) must be in school, the survey found that as many as 11 percent of children between the ages of 6 and 15 years are not in school.
- Private basic education is popular among citizens in the MMAs. 41 percent of household’s children attend only private school.
- Greater Accra has the highest number of households that have children in private basic schools, while the Upper East has the least number of households with children in private schools. 54 percent of respondents in Greater Accra have children in private schools while only 68 percent respondents in the Upper East have children in government schools.
- Greater Accra again has the highest number of households with children of school going age out of school, while the Upper East has the least number of children of school going age out of school. 13 percent of respondents in Greater Accra children were out of school, while Upper East has only 2 percent out of school.
- Financial reasons were cited by 57 percent of respondents as the reasons why their children were not in school.
- A third of citizens in MMAs were of the opinion that public basic schools and JHS were far from where they live. 31 percent of respondents said that the public basic school is far from their residence, and another 65 percent were of the opinion that the public JHS was far. This is more acute in some regions, such as Greater Accra where as many as 73 percent of respondents said public schools were either far or very far.
- More than 70 percent agreed that there is equity in accessibility of public schools for all. Only 4 percent said there was discrimination against persons with disability and another 6 percent said there is discrimination against poor families.
- More than 52 percent of all respondents across the country were satisfied with public schools, 4 percent said they were very satisfied. 27 percent were however not satisfied.
Public Health Services
- Citizens in MMAs were of the opinion that there were more private hospitals and clinics than public hospitals and clinics.
- A total of 65 percent of all respondents said the location of the government hospitals were either far or very far. Only 9 percent of respondents said government hospitals in MMAs were near to their homes.
- Polyclinics are generally not available to most citizens living in MMA. 29 percent of respondents have no polyclinic in their municipality. In the regions, availability of polyclinics is even dire. 75 percent of respondents in Brong Ahafo said they didn’t have, while another 96 percent of respondents in Upper East didn’t have access to polyclinics. In the Eastern region however, 56 percent of respondents said they have polyclinics in their communities.
- At least two-thirds of households (72 percent) visited the health facility in the last 12 months. 80 percent of those who did not go did not because of good health. 11 percent however did not go even though they needed to because they undertook self-medication.
- 69 percent of households preferred a government health facility. A large majority of respondents (64 percent) preferred government hospital or polyclinic, only 4 percent preferred a community health post.
- About 19 percent of respondents have experienced non equal treatment of first-come-first serve by government health care providers.
- Citizens were of the opinion that they waited too long to access health care at public health facilities. About 49 percent of male respondents and more than half of female respondents, 51 percent, disagreed with the statement that patients do not have to wait long at the public health facilities before they receive treatment and care.
- More than 80 percent of respondents were overall satisfied with health care delivery.
- Only 40 percent of all respondents said their main source of drinking water is pipe borne. 42 percent of respondents also said sachet water was the main drinking water of their households.
- Majority of citizens in the MMAs have access to public source of water which includes pipe borne and public boreholes. 72 percent of households have access to public sources of water.
- In the regions, 64 percent of households in Greater Accra, 60 percent of households in Ashanti, 59 percent of households in Upper West and 56 percent of households in Volta region rely on private sources for their water requirements mainly because public water sources were not available to them.
- 60 percent of respondents were of the opinion that the public water sources in MMAs flow everyday with the exception of instances of regular maintenance shut downs of the sources.
- 80 percent of respondents were of the opinion that the taste, colour and smell was acceptable. The quality of water was good.
- 64 percent of respondents were satisfied with the efficiency of water supply. More than 70 percent of respondents were satisfied with the volume (73 percent) and pressure (72 percent) of supply respectively.
- 25 percent of respondents consider the distribution networks as poor in MMAs.
- To improve on public water services, 43 percent male and same number of female respondents agree that the first priority is to improve on the regularity of water supply.
- Generally, more than 56 percent of respondents were satisfied the public water system in MMAs. 40 percent were however not satisfied, while another 4 percent were indifferent about the service.
Perception of Public Toilets
- Overall, 54 percent of respondents have toilet facilities at home. As many as 39 percent of all respondents depend on public (33 percent public commercial and 6 percent private commercial). 8 percent practice open defecation.
- Only 42 percent of the population have access to water closets.
- 58 percent of respondents said public toilet facility is either far or very far from the household in MMAs. Only 42 percent said it was near. Distance from a public place of convenience is the most important reason why people practice open defecation.
- 26 percent of males and 24 percent of female were either very unsatisfied or unsatisfied with cleanliness of the public toilets. For waste removal, 22 percent of male households and 20 percent of female households were either very unsatisfied or unsatisfied with the frequency of waste removal.
- Over 60 percent of respondents did not agree with the statement that one gender group was given better service than the other.
- 42 percent of citizens were unsatisfied with public toilets, only 34 percent of survey respondents were satisfies with public toilets.
Solid Waste Management
- The survey found households have three major options for disposing of solid waste. Door to door accounted for 41 percent; disposing at dumpsite accounted for 37 percent; burning accounted for 15 percent; and other 1 percent.
- 73 percent of households do not have access to dumping sites.
- 51 percent of respondents to the survey were of the opinion that, the rubbish dumpsite is far from their homes. 12 percent indicated that their households were very far away from the dumpsite, and 39 percent said the dumpsite is far.
- Majority of respondents are not satisfied with the efficiency of solid waste collection services in MMAs. Only 35 percent of households were satisfied with the efficiency of solid waste collection service.
- 50 percent of respondents were very unsatisfied or unsatisfied with the frequency of cleaning at sanitary sites. 54 percent were unsatisfied with the neatness of sanitary sites, 57 percent were unsatisfied with citizens’ behaviour at sanitary sites, and 55 were not satisfied the number of sanitary sites.
- Majority of citizens (57 percent) were satisfied or very satisfied with the quality of door-to-door garbage collection service in MMAs. 20 percent are however unsatisfied with the quality of this service, while another 23 percent have no idea about door-to-door service.
- 32 percent of respondents were of the opinion that sanitary sites and rubbish collection services were not equitably distributed in the MMAs.
- 47 percent of respondents were not unsatisfied with solid waste collection. Another 45 percent were however satisfied.
Citizens Perception of Road Services
- 84 percent of households living in MMAs across the country have road networks in their areas. The road network is however not evenly distributed across MMAs. Only 57 percent of households were near to tarred roads.
- 84 percent said that there had not been construction of new roads in the past 12 months.
- 32 percent of respondents had no street lights in their areas of residence. As many as 85 percent of households said there were no safety features on the roads in the MMAs.
- 54 percent of respondents were not satisfied with the efficiency of roads in MMAs and 10 percent did not respond. Only 34 percent were satisfied with the efficiency of the roads in MMAs.
- 33 percent of households indicated that the road network in the MMAs was not fairly distributed.
- Overall, 60 percent of respondents were unsatisfied with the provision of road services in the MMAs.